Alternative to Soundex


Metaphone

Metaphone is a most popular alternative to Soundex. It was described by Lawrence Philips which he published in the December, 1990 issue of "Computer language" magazine. Metaphone is advanced version of Soundex which allows to avoid the gross analysis of words. Metaphone works more exactly than Soundex and is more sensitive for changes in the sequence of the letters and for such combinations as for example "th".
It is based on a method that reduces the words to 16 consonants. The precision is preserved and the variable areas are greatly reduced.

The basic rules:

The 16 consonants: B X S K J T F H L M N P R 0 W Y
„th“ = 0

Exceptions:
Beginning of word: "ae-", "gn", "kn-", "pn-", "wr-" ----> drop first letter
                             "x" ----> change to "s"
                             "wh-" ----> change to "w"

 
Transformation ---->
B
B, unless at the end of word after "m"
C
X (sh), if "-cia-" or "-ch-"
S if "-ci-", "-ce-", or "-cy-"
SILENT if "-sci-", "-sce-", or "-scy-"
otherwise, including in "-sch-"
D
J if in "-dge-", "-dgy-", or "-dgi-"
T otherwise
F
F
G
SILENT if in "-gh-" and not at end or before a vowel
in "-gn" or "-gned"
in "-dge-"
J if before "i", or "e", or "y" if not double "gg"
K otherwise
H
SILENT if after vowel and no vowel follows
or after "-ch-", "-sh-", "-ph-", "-th-", "-gh-"
H otherwise
J
J
K
SILENT if after "c"
K otherwise
L
L
M
M
N
N
P
F if before "h"
P otherwise
Q
K
R
R
S
X (sh) if before "h" or in "-sio-" or "-sia-"
S otherwise
T
X (sh) if "-tia-" or "-tio-"
0 (th) if before "h"
silent if in "-tch-"
T otherwise
V
F
W
SILENT if not followed by a vowel
W if followed by a vowel
X
KS
Y
SILENT if not followed by a vowel
Y if followed by a vowel
Z
S

 

Metaphone

Double Metaphone

Caverphone

Q-gram

NYSIIS